The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormonal system that is responsible for the regulation of arterial blood pressure and of the concentration of sodium in the plasma.   Renin and angiotensinogen The first stage of the RAAS is the release of the...
Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack

Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack

The latest guidance from NICE for the management of stroke was keen to highlight the fact that it is both preventable and treatable and not merely an inevitable consequence of ageing. Stroke is defined by the World Health Organization as a clinical syndrome consisting...
Clostridial Infection

Clostridial Infection

The Clostridia are a member of the family of Firmicutes. They are spore-forming, gram-positive, obligate anaerobes. The majority of the genus are saprophytic organisms that ferment plant polysaccharides and are found in many places in the environment, most notably the...
Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a disease caused by infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Approximately 10 million per year develop tuberculosis globally, and an estimated 1.7 billion people have latent tuberculosis. It is the second most common cause of death from...
Addison’s Disease

Addison’s Disease

Addison’s disease (primary adrenal insufficiency) is caused by the underproduction of the steroid hormones by the adrenal glands. Glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and sex steroid production are all affected. It is more common in women than in men and most commonly...
Hyperaldosteronism

Hyperaldosteronism

Hyperaldosteronism occurs when there are excessive circulating levels of aldosterone. Hyperaldosteronism can be subdivided into two main types: Primary hyperaldosteronism (~95% of cases) Secondary hyperaldosteronism (~5% of cases)   Primary hyperaldosteronism is...

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