Articles

Osteoporosis Update Part 1 – Assessing Risk

Osteoporosis Update Part 1 – Assessing Risk

Osteoporosis is a progressive systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. Consequently, bone fragility is increased and there is increased susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporotic fragility fractures are...

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Diagnosing Pneumonia on Chest X-Ray

Diagnosing Pneumonia on Chest X-Ray

Pneumonia, which is defined as inflammation of the lung, is a common cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Every year between 0.5% and 1% of adults in the U.K. will develop community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia is characterised by exudation and...

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Drugs in Pregnancy

Drugs in Pregnancy

Drugs are now used in over half of all pregnancies and the prevalence of their use is steadily increasing. Some of the most commonly prescribed drugs include analgesics, antiemetics, antimicrobials and antihistamines. In addition to this the use of social and illicit...

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Interpreting Abnormal Liver Function Tests

Interpreting Abnormal Liver Function Tests

Dealing with a patient with abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in the primary care setting is an extremely common clinical scenario. Approximately 20% of all LFTs are abnormal, of which less than 10% can be explained by existing disease. LFTs are not specific to...

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The Mysterious Sweating Sickness

The Mysterious Sweating Sickness

The Middle Ages are renowned for being a turbulent and difficult period of history. War, famine and disease occurred throughout the period and one of the most devastating pandemics in history, the Black Death, occurred in the mid 14th century. The Black Death was not...

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The Lowdown on Lyme Disease

The Lowdown on Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks. In high-risk areas, it is estimated that as many as 40% of ticks can be infected. The incidence of Lyme disease is...

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Understanding Hyponatraemia

Understanding Hyponatraemia

Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice and is seen in approximately 30% of hospitalised patients. It is also one of the most poorly understood and difficult to manage scenarios in medicine. It is rarely dangerous, but on...

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The Acute Red Eye

The Acute Red Eye

The acute red eye is a common presentation in the primary care setting. Most cases are benign in nature, with conjunctivitis being the most common aetiology. There are; however, several serious pathologies that clinicians need to be aware of that require urgent...

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Arterial Line Placement

Arterial Line Placement

Arterial line placement is a very common procedure in critical care and emergency medicine settings. The most common indications are: Haemodynamic instability requiring continuous direct BP monitoring Titration of vasopressors (or other cardioactive drugs) Need for...

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