Exam Tips

Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack

Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack

The latest guidance from NICE for the management of stroke was keen to highlight the fact that it is both preventable and treatable and not merely an inevitable consequence of ageing. Stroke is defined by the World Health Organization as a clinical syndrome consisting...

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Clostridial Infection

Clostridial Infection

The Clostridia are a member of the family of Firmicutes. They are spore-forming, gram-positive, obligate anaerobes. The majority of the genus are saprophytic organisms that ferment plant polysaccharides and are found in many places in the environment, most notably the...

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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a disease caused by infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Approximately 10 million per year develop tuberculosis globally, and an estimated 1.7 billion people have latent tuberculosis. It is the second most common cause of death from...

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Addison’s Disease

Addison’s Disease

Addison’s disease (primary adrenal insufficiency) is caused by the underproduction of the steroid hormones by the adrenal glands. Glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and sex steroid production are all affected. It is more common in women than in men and most commonly...

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Hyperaldosteronism

Hyperaldosteronism

Hyperaldosteronism occurs when there are excessive circulating levels of aldosterone. Hyperaldosteronism can be subdivided into two main types: Primary hyperaldosteronism (~95% of cases) Secondary hyperaldosteronism (~5% of cases)   Primary hyperaldosteronism is...

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Test Your ECG Knowledge – Waves, Segments and Intervals

Test Your ECG Knowledge – Waves, Segments and Intervals

Test your knowledge of the ECG waves, segments and intervals with these questions. 1. Which single statement regarding the p wave on the ECG is true? A. It is normally between 120 and 150 ms in duration B. It is positive in lead AVR C. It represents atrial...

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Test Your ECG Knowledge – Rate, Rhythm & Axis

Test Your ECG Knowledge – Rate, Rhythm & Axis

Test your knowledge of the ECG rate, rhythm and axis with these questions.1. Which of the following is the usual paper speed of an ECG? A. 10 mm/secB. 25 mm/secC. 50 mm/secD. 75 mm/secE. 100 mm/secAnswer: B. 25 mm/sec   The usual paper speed of an ECG is 25...

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Test Your ECG Knowledge – Anatomy & Physiology

Test Your ECG Knowledge – Anatomy & Physiology

Test your knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the ECG with these questions.1. Which of the following is the correct location of the sino-atrial (SA) node? A. Right atriumB. Left atriumC. Right ventricleD. Inter-atrial septumE. Inter-ventricular septumAnswer: A....

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The Visual Pathway and Visual Field Defects

The Visual Pathway and Visual Field Defects

The optic nerve (CN II) is the second of the cranial nerves. It transmits visual sensory information from the retina to the brain. It passes from the optic disc to the optic chiasm, and then continues as the optic tract to the lateral geniculate nucleus, and then to...

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How To Read a Paediatric ECG

How To Read a Paediatric ECG

The basic methodology used to read a paediatric ECG is the same as that used in an adult ECG, but the anatomical and physiological differences between children and adults mean that some features of the ECG that will be different. Furthermore, the progressive changes...

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