Exam Tips

Interpreting Thyroid Function Tests

Interpreting Thyroid Function Tests

The interpretation of thyroid function tests is a very popular exam topic. Thyroid disease is common, affecting approximately 1% of the female population, and there is a wide range of conditions affecting the thyroid gland, with a wide range of clinical features. For...

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Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – The Abdomen

Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – The Abdomen

Test your knowledge of abdominal anatomy with these questions. 1. Which of the following organs lies within the infracolic compartment? ? A. Stomach B. Liver C. Spleen D. Pancreas E. Small intestine Answer: E. Small intestine   The peritoneal cavity can be divided...

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Vertebral Levels

Vertebral Levels

Vertebral levels are very commonly tested on in both undergraduate and postgraduate medical examinations. The most commonly encountered landmarks and structures found at the various vertebral levels are shown in the table below:     Medical Exam Prep...

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Risk and Odds

Risk and Odds

Risk vs. odds The terms ‘risk’ and ‘odds’ are often used interchangeably but they actually have quite different implications and are calculated in different ways. Odds is a concept that is very familiar to gamblers. It is a ratio of probability that a particular event...

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Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – The Thorax

Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – The Thorax

Test your knowledge of thoracic anatomy with these questions. 1. The body of the sternum extends across which vertebral levels? A. T2 to T4 B. T3 to T7 C. T4 to T6 D. T5 to T9 E. T6 to T11 Answer: D. T5 to T9 The sternum is the flat, elongated bone that forms the...

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Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Part 1 – The Basics

Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Part 1 – The Basics

Arterial blood gas (ABG) interpretation helps us with the assessment of a patient’s respiratory gas exchange and acid-base balance. It forms a key part of the management of sick patients and provides invaluable information, particularly when combined with a thorough...

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Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – The Upper Limb

Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – The Upper Limb

Test your knowledge of upper limb anatomy with these questions. 1. Which of the following muscles is LEAST likely to be affected in the presence of an ulnar nerve lesion? A. Palmar interossei B. Lateral two lumbricals C. Dorsal interossei D. Medial two lumbricals E....

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Dealing With Stress and Anxiety

Dealing With Stress and Anxiety

“Adopting the right attitude can convert a negative stress into a positive one.” Hans Selye   Mental battles Famed Endocrinologist Hans Selye, who conducted much work on stress and the human response to it, defined stress as “any event which may make demands upon the...

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Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – Head & Neck

Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – Head & Neck

Test your knowledge of head and neck anatomy with these questions. 1. The sternocleidomastoid muscle inserts into which of the following anatomical points? A. Medial third of the clavicle B. Lateral third of the clavicle C. Body of the sternum D. Xiphoid process E....

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