Vertebral Levels

Vertebral Levels

Vertebral levels are very commonly tested on in both undergraduate and postgraduate medical examinations. The most commonly encountered landmarks and structures found at the various vertebral levels are shown in the table below: VERTEBRAL LEVELLANDMARKS &...
Risk and Odds

Risk and Odds

Risk vs. odds The terms ‘risk’ and ‘odds’ are often used interchangeably but they actually have quite different implications and are calculated in different ways. Odds is a concept that is very familiar to gamblers. It is a ratio of probability that a particular event...
Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – The Thorax

Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – The Thorax

Test your knowledge of thoracic anatomy with these questions. 1. The body of the sternum extends across which vertebral levels? A. T2 to T4 B. T3 to T7 C. T4 to T6 D. T5 to T9 E. T6 to T11 Show Answer Answer: D. T5 to T9 The sternum is the flat, elongated bone that...
Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Part 1 – The Basics

Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Part 1 – The Basics

Arterial blood gas (ABG) interpretation helps us with the assessment of a patient’s respiratory gas exchange and acid-base balance. It forms a key part of the management of sick patients and provides invaluable information, particularly when combined with a thorough...
Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – The Upper Limb

Test Your Anatomy Knowledge – The Upper Limb

Test your knowledge of upper limb anatomy with these questions. 1. Which of the following muscles is LEAST likely to be affected in the presence of an ulnar nerve lesion? A. Palmar interossei B. Lateral two lumbricals C. Dorsal interossei D. Medial two lumbricals E....

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