Cushing’s Syndrome

Cushing’s Syndrome

Cushing’s syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs caused by prolonged exposure to elevated levels of either endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoids. The incidence of Cushing’s syndrome is approximately 10-15 per million, and the incidence is higher in people...
Phaeochromocytoma

Phaeochromocytoma

A phaeochromocytoma is a rare functional tumour that arises from chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. Extra-adrenal paragangliomas (extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas) are closely related, though less common, tumours that originate in the ganglia of the sympathetic...
Differentiating Causes of Dementia

Differentiating Causes of Dementia

Globally, approximately 50 million people have dementia, and there are nearly 10 million new cases every year. Dementia is a syndrome in which there is deterioration in memory, thinking, behaviour and the ability to perform everyday activities. Although dementia...
Understanding the Ventilation-Perfusion Relationship

Understanding the Ventilation-Perfusion Relationship

To ensure that enough oxygen is provided by ventilation to saturate the blood fully requires that ventilation and perfusion of the lungs are adequately matched. Ventilation (V) refers to the flow of air into and out of the alveoli, while perfusion (Q) refers to the...
Understanding Acute Coronary Syndromes

Understanding Acute Coronary Syndromes

The term ‘acute coronary syndromes’ describes a group of clinical conditions, all of which usually present with chest pain as a consequence of myocardial ischaemia or infarction. The acute coronary syndromes comprise: Unstable angina Non-ST elevation myocardial...
Hepatitis B Serology and Vaccination

Hepatitis B Serology and Vaccination

Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), a double-stranded DNA virus of the Hepadnaviridae family that replicates by reverse transcription. Hepatitis B is the most common cause of hepatitis globally, and the World Health...

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