Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Pernicious Anaemia

Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Pernicious Anaemia

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin that is found in foods of animal origin, such as meat, dairy products and eggs. It is the only vitamin not found in vegetables. Absorption of vitamin B12 occurs in the terminal ileum and requires intrinsic factor to...
Sympathomimetic Drugs

Sympathomimetic Drugs

Sympathomimetic drugs are stimulant compounds that mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system. These drugs are used in a variety of situations, including cardiac arrest, haemorrhage, sepsis and myocardial insufficiency.   Mechanism...
Hypothermia

Hypothermia

Hypothermia exists when the core body temperature is below 35°C and is classified arbitrarily as mild (32-35°C), moderate (28-32°C), or severe (<28°C). The Swiss staging system, based on clinical signs, can be used by rescuers at the scene to describe victims: I –...
Heat Stroke

Heat Stroke

Heat stroke is defined as a systemic inflammatory response with a core temperature that is greater than 40.6°C accompanied by a change in mental state and varying levels of organ dysfunction. There are two forms of heat stroke: Classic non-exertional heat stroke –...
The Story of the Tendon Hammer

The Story of the Tendon Hammer

The tendon hammer is one of the most historically resilient medical instruments still in use today. It is a simple yet invaluable device that can be used to diagnose a wide variety of nervous system and muscular disorders. Almost 130 years after the invention of the...
Neutropenic Sepsis

Neutropenic Sepsis

Neutropenic sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of neutropenia (low neutrophil count). There are multiple possible causes of neutropenia such as cytotoxic chemotherapy and other immunosuppressive drugs, stem cell transplantation, infections, bone...

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