Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity reactions are exaggerated or inappropriate immunologic responses occurring in response to an antigen or allergen. Gell and Coombs described four classes in 1963: Type I hypersensitivity reactions Type II hypersensitivity reactions Type III...
Life Threatening Chest Injuries in Trauma – The Killer Six

Life Threatening Chest Injuries in Trauma – The Killer Six

Trauma remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide, with chest injuries representing a significant portion of these cases. Whether resulting from motor vehicle accidents, falls, or penetrating trauma, injuries to the chest can lead to immediate compromise of vital...
What Killed George Washington?

What Killed George Washington?

George Washington is undoubtedly one of the world’s most famous historical figures. He served as the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence, presided over the 1787 convention that drafted the United States...
The Emergency Treatment of Anaphylaxis: A Quick Guide 

The Emergency Treatment of Anaphylaxis: A Quick Guide 

Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, generalised or systemic hypersensitivity reaction that is likely when both of the following criteria are met: Sudden onset and rapid progression of symptoms Life-threatening airway and/or breathing and/or circulation...
Methaemoglobinaemia

Methaemoglobinaemia

Methaemoglobinaemia occurs when red blood cells contain methaemoglobin at levels higher than 1%. Methaemoglobinaemia results from the presence of iron in the ferric form instead of the usual ferrous form. The ferric form is unable to bind oxygen, and its presence...
Understanding the APGAR Score

Understanding the APGAR Score

The Apgar score is a simple method of assessing a neonate’s well-being at birth. There are five criteria, each of which is allocated a score between zero and two. The assessment is generally performed at one and five minutes after delivery, and may be repeated later...