The Story of Penicillin

The Story of Penicillin

I sometimes take antibiotics for granted. As a doctor, I have prescribed thousands of courses of antibiotics throughout my career. I have taken many courses myself also, and they almost certainly saved my life when I perforated my appendix in my mid-20s. Antibiotics...
The Recognition and Management of Sepsis

The Recognition and Management of Sepsis

Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide but remains a little known entity to the general public. Every year, around 150,000 people in the UK develop sepsis and, of those, over 40,000 die. The incidence of sepsis in the developed world is increasing by...
The Menopause

The Menopause

The menopause is the biological stage in a woman’s life when menstruation permanently ceases. It marks the end of the female reproductive life. It occurs with the final menstrual period and is usually diagnosed clinically after 12 months of amenorrhoea. In the UK, the...
Maternal Changes During Pregnancy

Maternal Changes During Pregnancy

Pregnancy is associated with several maternal physiological adaptations that both assist foetal survival as well as aiding the mother to meet the demands of pregnancy and prepare for labour.   Cardiovascular system changes The increase in progesterone levels that...
Pregnancy

Pregnancy

Pregnancy, which is also referred to as gestation, is the period during which one or more offspring develop inside a woman.   Definitions Pregnancy is divided into three stages, each of which is marked by specific foetal developments: First trimester: 0 to 12...
Conception

Conception

Following the deposition of sperm in the vagina at the cervix, it is subsequently transported to the uterus. Here it fertilises the ovum and implants in the uterine stroma, and this process is known as conception.   Transport of sperm Immediately after...

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