The Menopause

The Menopause

The menopause is the biological stage in a woman’s life when menstruation permanently ceases. It marks the end of the female reproductive life. It occurs with the final menstrual period and is usually diagnosed clinically after 12 months of amenorrhoea. In the UK, the...
Maternal Changes During Pregnancy

Maternal Changes During Pregnancy

Pregnancy is associated with several maternal physiological adaptations that both assist foetal survival as well as aiding the mother to meet the demands of pregnancy and prepare for labour.   Cardiovascular system changes The increase in progesterone levels that...
Pregnancy

Pregnancy

Pregnancy, which is also referred to as gestation, is the period during which one or more offspring develop inside a woman.   Definitions Pregnancy is divided into three stages, each of which is marked by specific foetal developments: First trimester: 0 to 12...
Conception

Conception

Following the deposition of sperm in the vagina at the cervix, it is subsequently transported to the uterus. Here it fertilises the ovum and implants in the uterine stroma, and this process is known as conception.   Transport of sperm Immediately after...
Sexual Intercourse

Sexual Intercourse

Sexual intercourse, which is also referred coitus or copulation, is the reproductive act in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract. Upon completion of the reproductive act, sperm cells are passed from the male body into the female,...
The Menstrual Cycle

The Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is the regular cycle of vaginal blood loss (menstruation) that results from the breakdown of the uterine lining when the implantation of a fertilised ovum does not occur. Menstruation occurs on a monthly cycle throughout a woman’s...

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