Articles

Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Pernicious Anaemia

Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Pernicious Anaemia

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin that is found in foods of animal origin, such as meat, dairy products and eggs. It is the only vitamin not found in vegetables. Absorption of vitamin B12 occurs in the terminal ileum and requires intrinsic factor to...

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Sympathomimetic Drugs

Sympathomimetic Drugs

Sympathomimetic drugs are stimulant compounds that mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system. These drugs are used in a variety of situations, including cardiac arrest, haemorrhage, sepsis and myocardial insufficiency.   Mechanism...

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Hypothermia

Hypothermia

Hypothermia exists when the core body temperature is below 35°C and is classified arbitrarily as mild (32-35°C), moderate (28-32°C), or severe (<28°C). The Swiss staging system, based on clinical signs, can be used by rescuers at the scene to describe victims: I –...

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Heat Stroke

Heat Stroke

Heat stroke is defined as a systemic inflammatory response with a core temperature that is greater than 40.6°C accompanied by a change in mental state and varying levels of organ dysfunction. There are two forms of heat stroke: Classic non-exertional heat stroke –...

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The Story of the Tendon Hammer

The Story of the Tendon Hammer

The tendon hammer is one of the most historically resilient medical instruments still in use today. It is a simple yet invaluable device that can be used to diagnose a wide variety of nervous system and muscular disorders. Almost 130 years after the invention of the...

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Neutropenic Sepsis

Neutropenic Sepsis

Neutropenic sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of neutropenia (low neutrophil count). There are multiple possible causes of neutropenia such as cytotoxic chemotherapy and other immunosuppressive drugs, stem cell transplantation, infections, bone...

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Nerve Agents

Nerve Agents

The nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a group of particularly toxic chemical warfare agents that were initially developed just before and during World War II. The first compounds to be synthesised are known as the G agents ("G" stands for German, as...

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Thermal Burns: The Management of Minor Burns

Thermal Burns: The Management of Minor Burns

The current ATLS guidelines recommend that all deep-partial and full-thickness burns larger than 20% total body surface area (TBSA) are considered major burns that require resuscitation, while some other sources suggest a lower cut off of 15%. The American Burn...

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Thermal Burns: Initial Assessment and Management

Thermal Burns: Initial Assessment and Management

The initial assessment of the patient with thermal injuries involves the following steps. There are multiple priorities in a burned patient, and in reality, these are usually managed in parallel or a horizontal manner by a fully trained resuscitation team: Stop the...

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Thermal Burns: Background and Pathophysiology

Thermal Burns: Background and Pathophysiology

Thermal burns are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, but following the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) basic principles of initial trauma resuscitation and initiating simple emergency measures can significantly minimise their effect. It is estimated...

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