Hypothermia

Hypothermia

Hypothermia exists when the core body temperature is below 35°C and is classified arbitrarily as mild (32-35°C), moderate (28-32°C), or severe (<28°C). The Swiss staging system, based on clinical signs, can be used by rescuers at the scene to describe victims: I –...
Heat Stroke

Heat Stroke

Heat stroke is defined as a systemic inflammatory response with a core temperature that is greater than 40.6°C accompanied by a change in mental state and varying levels of organ dysfunction. There are two forms of heat stroke: Classic non-exertional heat stroke –...
The Story of the Tendon Hammer

The Story of the Tendon Hammer

The tendon hammer is one of the most historically resilient medical instruments still in use today. It is a simple yet invaluable device that can be used to diagnose a wide variety of nervous system and muscular disorders. Almost 130 years after the invention of the...
Neutropenic Sepsis

Neutropenic Sepsis

Neutropenic sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of neutropenia (low neutrophil count). There are multiple possible causes of neutropenia such as cytotoxic chemotherapy and other immunosuppressive drugs, stem cell transplantation, infections, bone...
Nerve Agents

Nerve Agents

The nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a group of particularly toxic chemical warfare agents that were initially developed just before and during World War II. The first compounds to be synthesised are known as the G agents (“G” stands...
Thermal Burns: The Management of Minor Burns

Thermal Burns: The Management of Minor Burns

The current ATLS guidelines recommend that all deep-partial and full-thickness burns larger than 20% total body surface area (TBSA) are considered major burns that require resuscitation, while some other sources suggest a lower cut off of 15%. The American Burn...

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